Agriculture in India has a long history. Since more than 10,000 years majority of Indians are dependent on the industry. As agriculture is counted the main business of most of the people, it plays a significant role in the overall socio economic development of the country. According to the Annual Report 2009-2010 of the Ministry of Agriculture the total geographical area of India is 328.7 million hectares of which 140.3 million hectares is net sown area, while 193.7 million hectares is the gross cropped area.Among world nations, India is the largest producer of fresh fruits. It mainly produces Sesame seeds, fennel, badian, jute, cashew nuts, pulses, ginger turmeric, mangoes, chillies and peppers. India holds the second largest population of cattle. It has around 281 million cattle.It holds the second position in producing cashew, cabbage, cotton seed, fresh vegetables, garlic, cardamom, onions, wheat, rice sugarcane, tomatoes, coconut, ground nut, tea, green peas, cauliflower, potato and inland fish.The Indian Agriculture Research Institute (INRI) was established in 1905. INRI was responsible for the research leading the Indian Green Revolution of the 1970s. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the apex body in agriculture and related fields. They have to look after all researches and education of the related field. The union minister of Agriculture is the president of ICAR. The Indian Agriculture Statistics Research Institute looks after and develops new techniques, and they design the experiments, analyses data in agriculture and they develop the strategies to get maximum from animal and plant breed. However, Government of India has set up Farmers Commission to completely evaluate the agriculture program but still farmers are facing some problems.According to World Bank: Indian Branch the allocation of water is insufficient and unsustainable. The irrigation infrastructure is deteriorating. At some places the overuse of water is currently being covered by pumping facility but as these are falling by foot of underground water each year, this is a limited resource. Secondary, farmers in India are mostly illiterate, socially economically backward or incapable of developing new ideas. They are inadequate or inefficient to implement fast and progressive actions. Farmers are facing the problems of finance and lack of marketing services for farm produce. Still as agriculture being the Indian business, future of agriculture in India is bright.Government is taking active interest in agriculture and it is giving the highest priority to it. The Tenth Plan allocation was comparatively lower than 11th Plan. The 11th Plan is considerably higher over the 10th plan. An amount of US$19 billion has been allocated for the Ministry of Agriculture during the Eleventh Five Year Plan. Agriculture is one of the strongholds of the Indian economy and accounts for 14.6 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009-2010, and provisional percent of the total export is 10.23 percent. Moreover, the agriculture sector, provides employment of 52 to 55 percent of the work force.As per the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) farm output will grow by 10 percent to 114 million ton (MT) in the Kharif season, while in winter season (Rabbi Season) is expected to increase 2 percent that will be around 116.6 MT. According to Agricultural and processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) India’s exports of fruits, vegetables, cereals and processed food products was worth US$ 1.14billion during April May 2010-11. Middle East, Asia, Africa, and South America are developing countries in which 70 percent of the India’s agriculture and processed food is being exported.This data makes it absolutely clear that Indian Economy is largely governed by the Industry, which is still largely dependent on the uncertainties of rainfall and other natural forces. We have a social responsibility to support the agricultural industry in every possible manner.URL :
In the plants , and those algae that share with the first having alternation of generations heterophasic, called sporophyte phase to diploid multicellular, which produces by meiosis spores haploid (meiosporas), whose development derived haploid individuals called gametophytes .A sporophyte develops by cell proliferation (mitosis) from a zygote formed by fertilization , ie, the fusion of two gametes or sex cells haploid, arising in specialized organs called gametangia which develop on the gametophyte .The explant or explant is a living tissue removed from his own body and transferred to an artificial medium for growth . In the particular case of plant biotechnology , the explant is a small fragment of a plant that is cleaved and is prepared Aseptic for cultivation in a nutrient medium and which, therefore, functions as a generator of new plants through tissue culture in vitro .The fertilization or fertilization , also called syngamy , is the process by which two gametes fuse to create a new individual with a genome derived from both parents. The two main purposes of fertilization is the combination of genes derived from both parents and the generation of a new individual ( reproduction).In the case of seed plants , one must differentiate the phenomenon of fertilization itself (intimate union of two sex cells to their respective hubs confused and, to a greater or lesser degree, their cytoplasm), a biological process that precedes : the pollination , in which the grains of pollen , developed in librariescontaining each anther of a stamen (male reproductive sheet) are transported by wind or insects to the stigmas, where they germinate issuing a pollen tube that grows toward the ovary. In this case it is not gametes but spores , since each pollen grain contains two gametes or male reproductive cells, which are transported to a carpel (female reproductive sheet) of another flower (pollination) or the same flower.ProcessFertilization details are as diverse as the species, but there are four events that are constant in all of them:1. The first contact and recognition between egg and sperm , which in most cases is of great importance to ensure that the gametes are of the same species.2. Regulation of the interaction between sperm and the female gamete. Only a male gamete to fertilize a female gamete. This can be achieved by allowing only one sperm enters the egg, thus preventing the entry of others.3. The fusion of genetic material from both gametes4. The formation of the zygote and the beginning of its developmentAccording to the similarities and differences between the gametes? Isogamica fertilization: union of two gametes identical in size and structure, occurs only in some groups, such as protozoa .? Anisogamica Fertilization: Union of two different gametes, both in size and structure, one male and one female. Occur in most groups.? Ovogamica fertilization: gametes very different: the female is large and immobile and provides all the nutritional reserves to the zygote, while the male is small and mobile.
In order to growing mushrooms well it is good to follow the important instructions provided in the mushroom kits. If you have not purchased the kit to access the instructions, you can visit different people who have had an experience in mushrooms growing so that you can understand the dos and don’ts involved in the exercise for the best results. Here are important rules to observe; RESEARCH ON THE RIGHT MUSHROOM TO GROW Growing mushrooms is an easy procedure but it can be challenging if you do not have enough information. When you are choosing the right types to grow you need to research online for the right information about it. This aids you in making the right decision regarding the right mushroom for you to grow. The information you get helps you to know the right temperature, humidity and moisture content required to grow that particular seed. An online research exposes you to the different species available that you can grow. DO NOT ASSUME THE PROCESS IS SAME FOR ALL THE MUSHROOMS There are of different types hence each has its own process. To growing mushrooms, you need to know the requirement for that particular type of mushrooms. Using a process for one type to grow another type of mushroom can lead to failure. If you decide to grow a wood eating type of mushroom, you should ensure that you have the medium as wood such as a log stuffed with sawdust. In addition, take note of the conditions required for the type of mushrooms. For example if you are growing the Enoki, you need to place the medium in a cool place compared to other types. This favors the growth of the mushrooms you are dealing with. In case you plan to blend different types then you need to ensure that they require the same substrate, temperature, humidity and moisture contents. OBSERVE THE SANITATION PROCEDURE In order to growing mushrooms, you need to observe the right sanitation procedures. This is a very sensitive procedure as it determines whether it will grow well or not. The sanitation procedures involve the sterilization and pasteurization of the substrate and the items used for the growth of the mushrooms. Hand washing while sowing it is very important in this procedure. This procedure is important in ensuring that the substrates and the items used in the growing of the mushrooms are free from harmful micro organisms that can harm the it. PREPARE ADEQUATE SPACE To growing mushrooms requires preparation especially of space. When planning to grow mushrooms for commercial use it is important to consider the availability of space. You can decide to grow the mushrooms that can thrive well in an open field as you can have the space available for mushroom growth. However, if you have a basement room it is ideal for the growth of mushrooms in large quantities. Ensure that you have a room that is well ventilated but dark without direct contact with the natural light.
Good paddock maintenance requires a little careful planning so that things that need to be done in the course of the year can be scheduled.Spring MaintenanceSpring is a good time of year to carry out a soil analysis. Soil fertility affects grass growth and this can check how healthy your soil is. Recommendations can be made to correct anything.Harrowing in the spring – or the autumn – removes old grass (dead thatch) from your pasture and allows light and air into the pasture to develop new growth. It is often accompanied by rolling, which can both level and improve growth.Topping (cutting or mowing) will help give a good durable grass sward. This is in itself the most effective barrier to weeds.Fertilising, especially after topping can also be carried out at this time of year.Summer MaintenanceIn the summer, a paddock may require further topping and fertilising again, if required.Over-seeding can both repair grass and introduce more suitable grass mixes into a paddock. Good expertise and local knowledge (leading on from soil analysis) is important in choosing the seed.Summer is also a good time to aerate the soil, especially if the grass and underlying soil has become compacted by either machinery or animals. This can not only help with improving the grass, but will also help with surface drainage issues.Autumn ManagementAutumn is a time for topping, aerating, weed control and over-seeding as well.In addition, autumn is the time of year for an application of lime – although little and often throughout the year can often prove to be the best. The soil analysis will determine whether this is an appropriate treatment.Autumn is also a good time to start hedge trimming. There will be no effect on any nesting birds and the summer’s growth can be cut back, leaving a tidy clean hedge. This in turn encourages growth and helps keep a hedge stockproof.Winter ManagementWinter can also be a good time for any hedge-trimming which has not been carried out in the autumn. It is at this time of year that any hedges which need to be laid in the traditional way are tackled. At first laid hedges look bare, but they soon green up the next spring.This is a good time of year to carry out any ditching work, check on fences and plan the year ahead for the next cycle of pasture management.Each stage in the process does not take long, but it is worth planning well to keep an attractive green sward of grass.
What is a tree farm, ever heard of such a thing? Well you can stop thinking Christmas scenes, and snow-men because I am not talking about Christmas trees. Although a tree farm may indeed have Christmas trees, in fact it can have any type of forestry – including all those evergreens that are used around Christmas-time. The main principal behind a tree farm is the protection of the woodland from weather, disasters, and negative forest management and practices. These farms are owned privately by any individual who wants to be committed and to being environmentally responsible. Guidelines for managing this type of farm are provided by the American Forestry Foundation, and the program itself was developed in the 1940’s and has been running since. Some of the requirements are that a certified tree farm must be of a certain size, i.e. between 10 and 10,000 acres. This size refers to the amount of land that is actually given over to forest. The owner has to agree a plan for the management of the forest land which has to be currently utilized for forest products which may include timber. As well as that the owner must guard the forest against threats such as fires, diseases, and insects. There are other requirements but those are the main ones. Best practice and conservation methods can be obtained through the American Forestry Foundation and they can also give good information with regard to harvesting, protecting, and maintaining your forest land. A magazine, which comes as a benefit of being a tree farmer, also provides valuable up to date information on managing your farm. There are lots of benefits to becoming a certified tree farmer; some of these are: A special certificate A sign designating your land as a certified tree farm A subscription to the tree farmer magazine. Tree farmers are sometimes recognized for their help in protecting the environment and some can even gain increased profits on their forest products. In addition to these rewards which are provided by the American Forestry Foundation, there are natural benefits as well. Maintaining your woodlands under the guidelines of the American Forestry Foundation can help with watershed, the quality of the water on your land, and help provide a safe environment for the creatures that live on your land. Protecting your forest can also provide a number of recreational benefits as well. However the main benefit to be had is just the fact that you will feel great about what you are doing. The process of becoming a certified tree farmer involves having your woodlands inspected, this inspection does not involve any fee payment. In fact, the volunteer inspector can help and advise you on your management plan and answer any questions you may have about the process. If you are interested in becoming a certified tree farmer then you should first of all contact your local forestry service or the American Forestry Foundation. It should be remembered that tree farms are not beneficial just to the owner of the tree farm, in fact, this program is beneficial to all Americans. Looking after nature should be a common goal and we all need to play our part where we can. The American Forestry Foundation is giving individuals who have the right type of land the power to do their part through their program. You can support the foundation or learn more information about the foundation online.